An `AI in Design' View of Design
System Knowledge

Deep vs. Surface knowledge

Which of the previously identified types of knowledge can be labelled as deep or surface?

Discussion. Deep knowledge expresses facts which have generality and therefore have a great range of applicability. However, the facts which can then be directly deduced are also general and therefore tend not to reduce the search for a solution [Addanki et al. 1989] [Freeman & Newell 1972] [Nayak 1992] [Williams 1992]. The surface knowledge can be applied in very specific situations and is comparatively restricted in its use. Its advantage lies in the fact that the conclusions which can be reached are much more grounded in the specific problem and provide very concrete information. Speed, resulting from fewer and less abstract reasoning steps, is another major benefit. Knowledge compilation can be used to combine selected deep knowledge with general reasoning to produce efficient, problem-specific reasoners [Araya & Mittal 1987] [Brown 1991] [Spillane & Brown 1992].

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