Parameterized Models for Facial Animation

There are several approaches to applying computer graphics techniques to facial animation:

Both approaches have some drawbacks, here are some suggested by K. Waters.

Developing parameter sets

How is a facial parameter set developed?
Several approaches are possible: There are two broad categories of parameters; those controlling the
  1. conformation, or structure, of an individual face.
  2. expression, or emotional content.
What should the parameters for an expression model be? A possible foundation -- and it appears to be the best basis -- is the Facial Action Coding System, or FACS, developed by Paul Ekman.

Expression parameters

Which parameters are best included in a simple expression model remains unresolved. Of primary importance in expression are the eyes and mouth, so most parameters relate to these areas.

For the eyes:

For the mouth: others are:

Conformation parameters

Changes in the confirmation of faces (those aspects that vary from individual to individual and make each perso unique) require a different set of parameters. Again, the ideal set is unknown.

Conformation parameters:

One such parametrized model was given by K Waters

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