Rouse & Rouse 1983 - Human Error Classification Scheme

Rouse, W.B., & Rouse, S.H. (1983) "Analysis and classification of human error". IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-13 , 539-549

This is a causal model, based on typical operator tasks. Note the relationship with Norman's human action cycle.

Human error due to:

    1. Observation of system state [Perceive Result of Action]
      a. excessive
      b. misinterpreted
      c. incorrect
      d. incomplete
      e. inappropriate
      f. lack

    2. Choice of hypothesis [Interpret Result]
      a. inconsistent with observations
      b. consistent but very unlikely
      c. consistent but very costly
      d. functionally irrelevant

    3. Testing of Hypothesis [Evaluate Outcome]
      a. incomplete
      b. false acceptance of wrong hypothesis
      c. false rejection of correct hypothesis
      d. lack


    4. Choice of goal [Forming Goal]
      a. incomplete
      b. incorrect
      c. unnecessary
      d. lack

    5. Choice of procedure [Forming Intention] / [Specify Action]
      a. incomplete
      b. incorrect
      c. unnecessary
      d. lack

    6. Execution of procedure [Execute Action]
      a. step omitted
      b. step repeated
      c. step added
      d. steps out of sequence
      e. inappropriate timing
      f. incorrect discrete position
      g. incorrect continuous range
      h. incomplete
      i. unrelated inappropriate action