Due date: Friday, September 6th by 11:59pm
Context switches occur when the operating switches from running one process to running another. You are to modify the Linux kernel to record context-switch information for each process. You are then to design programs to verify that your implementation works and to evaluate the number of context switches for a variety of processes.
getrusage() system call returns system resource
information about a process. The rusage structure it uses has a number
of fields, such as time used, messages sent, page faults, and context
switches, not all of which are filled in by a given operating system.
In particular, the Linux kernel does not record per-process context
switches. In this project, you will extend the Linux kernel
implementation so that the
getrusage() system call
returns information about context switches.
getrusage() system call is located in
linux/kernel/sys.c. The system call itself is
sys_getrusage() which calls the internal function
getrusage(). The filled in fields of the rusage
structure come from the structure
struct task_struct contains information about each
process (task) in the system and is located in
linux/include/linux/sched.h. The task_struct fields are
modified when a process is created and exits, in
respectively. They are also modified in
linux/kernel/timer.c and in the directory
You need to extend the functionality of
return meaningful values for voluntary and involuntary context
switches. You will need to add fields to the
task_struct to keep track of context switches for each process,
for both for the process itself and its children. You can model your
changes on how minor and major page faults are handled, although the
method of counting them is different (see below).
The scheduler is a kernel function called
schedule(), that gets called from other system call
functions (usually when a process goes to sleep waiting for I/O),
after every system call and after some interrupts. When invoked, the
You do not need to be concerned about specific policies for this project.
Linux maintains a counter
is a global counter that is incremented whenever a context switch
occurs. This increment occurs in the
function, when the process identified by the task_struct pointer
prev switches to the task_struct pointer
next are different). At this point you can insert a
statement to increment the total number of context switches (both
voluntary and involuntary) for the process pointed to by
prev (since you will keep track of the number of context
switches from a process rather than to a process so you should use
prev rather than
next). You will then have
the total number of context switches, both voluntary and involuntary.
At this point, a voluntary context switch means the process is in a
state other than TASK_RUNNING (most likely waiting for I/O).
prev->state is not TASK_RUNNING then the
voluntary context switch count can be incremented, too.
You will probably need to modify
to add information to
struct task_struct. When you add
struct task_struct, you also need to change the
INIT_TASK macro (also in
sched.h) to be sure the initial
values are in place. Also, note that
sched.h has a lot
of files depending upon it, meaning there will be a lot that need
recompilation every time you modify it. Change
as few number of times as possible.
When writing kernel code, you will want to print messages to
stdout, as you do in
printf(). Since many
parts of the kernel may not have access to the stdio library, kernel
developers wrote their own version of
printk() basically behaves the
printf(), in terms of formatting. Furthermore,
printk() also writes messages to the log file
/var/log/messages, so you can view output there in case
your modified OS crashes. You might add prefixes to your printk()
messages, such as "MLC: " or "Fossil: " so you can more easily pick
out your messages from the log file (using grep, perhaps). But be
careful! If you have
printk() messages in a part of the
kernel that is accessed frequently (like the scheduler) it can fill up
your log file quickly. When this happens, your system can become
unstable. Check the size of your log file (using
and the disk space that is free (using
Remember to save your work frequently in case you crash your machine or need to "roll-back" to a previous working source code version! Refer to http://fossil.wpi.edu/ for more information on how to do this and general use of the Fossil lab and other useful Linux links.
If you find yourself struggling, you might proceed carefully through the following steps:
getrusage()system call. You might make several versions of the test program that do different amounts of computation vs. I/O to observe how the
getrusage()system code and related routines that modify rusage values. Use
printk()statements as needed to build up confidence where to add your modifications.
struct task_structto record context switches. You need fields for both the process itself and its children. Once you have the structure changes in place, just initialize the values to a fixed, non-zero value, such as one, so you can verify your code is working. When you call
getrusage()at this point it will just return this fixed value. Your code should accumulate values for child processes when these processes exit (as done for other fields in
linux/kernel/exit.c). Test your code with a process that creates many child process and you should see the number of context switches increase for each forked child process.
linux/kernel/sched.cto properly record context switches. You may use
printk()statements here to build up confidence, but this code is a core part of the operating system and will result in numerous log messages so pay attention to the size of the log file.
After you have implemented your
and debugged it carefully, you will then evaluate the nature of
context switches by:
Feel free to run other processes and interpret their results.
You must hand in the following:
The turnin (
/cs/bin/turnin) for proj1 is "proj1".
When turnin, also include file "group.txt" which contains the
group_name login_name1 last_name1, first_name1 login_name2 last_name2, first_name2 ...
Also, before you turnin tar up (with gzip) your files. For example:
mkdir proj1 cp * proj1 /* copy all your files to submit to proj1 directory */ tar czf proj1.tgz proj1
scp proj1.tgz login_name@ccc:~/ ssh login_name@ccc /* will ask your ccc passwd */ /cs/bin/turnin submit cs3013 proj1 proj1.tgz
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